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The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka

This short novel by Franz Kafka is a classic of world literature, published in 1915. It is considered the masterpiece of this author. So, we invite you to download a copy of The Metamorphosis in PDF format here.

This long story or novelette tells the story of a working man, the breadwinner of a household consisting of his father, mother, sister, and himself. One morning, this man woke up and turned into an insect.

Critics have often argued that this narrative is allegorical or that it symbolizes a political and social reality.

However, another part rejects this interpretation and focuses more on the mastery of the creative and artistic treatment that the author captures in this work, where the fantastic bursts into reality.

In any case, its success is unquestionable. More than a century after its publication, it is still read with enthusiasm.

The Metamorphosis in PDF

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Summary of The Metamorphosis

Gregory Samsa, after a restless sleep, wakes up one morning feeling very strange.

Gradually he realized that his inability to get out of bed was because he had become a monstrous insect, lying on his back.

After much reflection on his annoying work situation and how late he was running late for work, Gregory struggled to get to the door of his room.

Moments before, his entire family had knocked on his door to ask him if everything was all right, as his delay was not normal.

Gregory was a traveling merchant and the only one working in his family to pay off a debt owed by his parents to support them and his sister Grete. 

Although he was already aware of his new situation, he did not want his family to see him in this state and tried to reassure them several times with relative success, as his voice sounded strange, as if accompanied by a whistling sound.

But then there was a knock at the door of the house. It was the company’s own proxy who was suspicious of Gregory’s absence from the office. 

Faced with the official’s unjust accusations, Gregory had no choice but to come forward.

He opened the door and the proxy gave a thunderous scream at the sight of him, the family’s impression was no less intense, his mother burst into tears, his father was upset and his sister was very surprised. 

Gregory’s father decided to lock him up for the time being while they decided what to do in this extraordinary situation.

Soon came the lamentations, because if Gregory did not work, who would support them, who would pay the debts that haunted them? 

While they were gathered in the living room, Gregory heard them say that they had their savings, but that it was only enough to live on for two years, at the most, so the three of them would have to start working.

This, of course, did not please them at all, although they had no choice.

Will Gregorio manage to get out of his condition? What will the family do with him?

FAQ about The Metamorphosis

What is the teaching of The Metamorphosis?

The Metamorphosis can be interpreted as the demoralization of modern man, who surrenders himself as a slave to the labor system and when he is left in misery, he ends up being despised and ignored by the same society that put him in that situation. It is the sad reality of the exploited man.

What is the central theme of The Metamorphosis?

Gregory experiences the complete transformation of his body, as well as his family situation. He must deal with the mistreatment and misunderstanding of those around him, which leads him to become increasingly isolated and miserable. Therefore, his discomfort is not limited to the physical, but also mental and spiritual.

What killed Gregory in The Metamorphosis?

Poor Gregory began to feel worse and worse, he stopped eating and this left him very weak physically. In addition, the mistreatment he had suffered was not few. This gradually led him to deterioration, until he finally died.

What kind of insect was Gregory Samsa?

The narrator of the work does not say exactly what the insect was, but describes it as being a kind of cockroach or giant beetle, with legs that left goo and bled when hit hard.